根据儿童贫困行动小组（2018年）的数据，单亲家庭据说更容易陷入贫困。养育孩子是昂贵的，这就是为什么有孩子的家庭比没有孩子的家庭更容易陷入贫困的原因。另外，单亲家庭比双亲家庭更容易陷入贫困。2015年，工作与养老金部(DWP)发现，41%的单亲家庭儿童生活在相对贫困中，约为双亲家庭儿童贫困比例的两倍。这支持了新右派理论家的说法，他们将贫困归咎于对福利的依赖。Charles Murray(1993)说，社会上有一部分人有依赖国家和不愿意工作的文化。他称这个群体为底层社会。Murray指出，孤独的父母人数不断增加，犯罪率不断上升，人们对工作持抵触态度。穆雷承认，并不是所有的穷人都怯于工作，但他认为有相当一部分人只是不想工作。 女性比男性更有可能成为穷人（CGP，2016，第85页）。这种差异部分是因为女性比男性更有可能成为孤独的父母，而女性孤独的父母往往来自不太富裕的背景（儿童贫困行动小组，2018）。在职母亲更有可能从事适合照顾孩子的兼职工作，但工资较低。此外，单身女性养老金领取者比单身男性养老金领取者更有可能拥有低收入（Joseph Rowntree Foundation，2017）。女权主义的观点认为，女性的情况更糟糕。然而，他们说，真实的情况要不平等得多，因为很多贫困研究都集中在正规经济和工作上，女性的家庭生活经历往往被忽视。 年龄也是决定社会阶层的一个因素。据统计，英国的儿童比整个人口更有可能生活在低收入家庭中。DWP(2015)数据显示，除非作为他们家庭中的成年人全职工作，否则孩子很有可能处于相对贫困状态(McGuinness，2018)。根据McGuinness的说法，现在养老金领取者比非养老金领取者生活在贫困中的可能性要小，尽管在大约15年前情况正好相反。这可能是由于养老金领取者的福利更加慷慨。更不用说，残疾成年人生活在低收入家庭的可能性是非残疾成年人的两倍。这是因为残疾成年人更有可能是低薪或不工作。他们往往不是不能工作，就是在就业市场上受到歧视。他们接受教育的机会也可能较少，使他们的平均素质低于其他人（CGP，2016，第83页）。回到查尔斯-默里的社会学批评，它忽视了残疾等个人无法控制的因素。
Lone-parent families are said to be more likely to be poor, according to the Child Poverty Action Group (2018). Raising children is expensive, this is why families with children are more likely to be in poverty than families without them. Also, lone-parent families are more likely to be poorer than two-parent families. In 2015, the Department for Work and Pensions (DWP) found that 41% of children in lone-parent families live in relative poverty – about double the proportion of children in two-parent families that do. This supports the claim of the New Right Theorists, they blame Dependency on Welfare for Poverty. Charles Murray (1993) said there is a sector of society who have a culture of dependency on the state and an unwillingness to work. He called this group the underclass. Murray identified the raising number of lone-parents, rising crime and attitudes of resistance to work. Murray accepts that not all poor people are work-shy but he thinks a significant group just not want to work.Women are slightly more likely to be poor than men (CGP, 2016, p. 85). This difference is partly because women are more likely to be lone-parents than men, and female lone-parents tend to be from less affluent backgrounds (Child Poverty Action Group, 2018). Working mothers are more likely to be in part-time jobs that fit in with childcare, but that pay less. Also, single female pensioners are more likely to have low incomes than single male pensioners (Joseph Rowntree Foundation, 2017). The Feminist perspective suggests that things are worse for women. However, they say that the real situation is far more unequal as a lot of poverty researches focus on the formal economy and work, the experiences of women’s domestic lives are often ignored.Age can also be a factor that determines social class. Children in the UK are statistically more likely to live in low-income households than the population as a whole. DWP (2015) data has shown that unless as adult in their family works full time, there is a high chance that the child will be in relative poverty (McGuinness, 2018). According to McGuinness, pensioners are now less likely to live in poverty than non-pensioners, even though the opposite was true until about 15 years ago. This could be due to more generous benefits for pensioners. Not to mention, disabled adults are twice as likely as non-disabled adults to live in low-income households. This is because disabled adults are more likely to be low paid or not in work. They often either could not work or face discrimination in the job market. They may also have poorer access to education, making them less qualified on average than other people (CGP, 2016, p. 83). Going back to the sociological criticism of Charles Murray, it ignores factors like disability which individuals are not able to control.
本段内容来自网络 并不是我们的写手作品 请勿直接剽窃，查重100%，造成后果与本站无关。如需定制论文请记得联系我们。